Doctoral disseration. Faust, Norma.
ILV, Lima. Basic Vocabulary Flora Fauna Vocabulary Cultural Vocabulary Grammatical Data Priodontes maximus Giant armadillo , Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri. Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests. Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens.
Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. Arroyo-Kalin argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification motivated by high starch yield.
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Crescentia cujete round variety - tree ; Cucurbita Lagenaria siceraria bottle variety - vine. In RN region, there is typically one person per village if that who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared.
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Shamans are thought to turn themselv. Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic allophonic effect, or is phonologically contrastive. Verb combines two or more categories tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.
Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes. Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination distinct from subordinating construction or distinct inflection. There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e. There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs. Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process. Productive incorporation of other elements adjectives, locatives, etc.click here
Cocama language - Wikiwand
Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP. Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain.
Sex is a relevant category in noun class ification system for animates.
On the Pre-Columbian Origin of Proto-Omagua-Kokama
Sex is a relevant category in noun class ification system for inanimates. Shape is a relevant category in the noun class ification system for animates. Shape is a relevant category in the noun class ification system for inanimates. Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot". Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.
Other contrasts in demonstratives visibility, elevation, etc. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form s from basic non-reflexive pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix. All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics type of entity. Michael and Dr. Vallejos will clarify the linguistic processes involved in their genesis, thereby gaining insights into the cultural circumstances in which they arose.
This project developed linguistic documentation and analyses of grammatical structure of Kokama-Kokamilla, a highly endangered yet historically significant language now spoken by about elderly individuals in northern Peruvian Amazonia. This project aimed to create a permanent linguistic record of this language and also to clarify the historically and theoretically significant circumstances of its genesis. In documentary linguistics, this project has contributed to the development of fieldwork methodologies to work with a wide range of speakers found in endangered languages contexts.
Outcomes of the project underscore the need to document the variation among speakers to serve revitalization purposes and to advance our understanding of language change accelerated by both obsolescence and revitalization efforts Vallejos b.
To document Kokama-Kokamilla, we worked in collaboration with speech community members, collecting traditional stories, narratives, conversations, procedural texts, and cure songs. As a result of this work, a collection of video clips and sound files transcribed and translated into Spanish and English will be available via the ELAR archive to the members of the speech community, as well as to others who wish to learn the language and about the language.
This data will be also relevant for linguists whose work requires the comparison of languages from diverse families and regions of the world. The document contains a relatively large amount of lexicographic detail, ethnographic notes, and drawings. This rich encyclopedia of Kokama-Kokamilla traditional knowledge is a valuable resource for ongoing language revitalization efforts. Significant results emerging from the analyses of grammatical structures of the language include: an account of the syntactic expression of information structure Vallejos, a , a documentation of the valence changing mechanisms Vallejos, c , an evaluation of the correlations between possessive semantic relations and construction types in Vallejos, submitted , an assessment of the structural changes accelerated by language obsolescence and revitalization efforts Vallejos, accepted , and the functional load of stative verbs Carrillo, in prep.
In terms of theories of languages in contact, this project clarified certain aspects of how the Kokama-Kokamilla language emerged, and how it is related to other languages in the Amazon basin. The significance of this result lies in the fact that most known examples of contact languages in the Americas arose in colonial contexts in which Native American and African populations were subordinated to European elites. The socio-historical circumstances of the genesis of Kokama-Kokamilla and its sister language Omagua were quite different, shedding light on language contact processes in the Americas outside of colonial contexts.